Krsna Kirtana Songs est. 2001                                                                                                                                            

KKSongs Ramayana Glossary


āditya – sons of Āditī, the mother of the demigods.


Agastya – the seer who aided Lord Rāma in person and in spirit


Ahilyā – the wife of sage Gautama; she was deceived by Indra and was cursed by her husband to become a stone. Lord Rāma redeemed her in His early pastimes.


Ahovala – the divine abode of Nṛsiḿha


Aja – father of King Daśaratha


Akṣa-kumāra – the son of Rāvaṇa who was killed by Hanumāna


Āḿsumān – son of King Sagara


Ananta – (lit. “without end”) another name of Lord Sesa.


Ańgada – 1) son of King Vāli, nephew of Sugrīva, commander-in-chief of the army of apes and bears; 2) the son of Lakṣmaṇa


Añjanā – mother of Hanumān


Āñjaneya – (lit. “son of Añjanā”) another name for Hanumān)


Aniruddha – 1) one of the four expansions of the Lord Vasudeva; incarnated on earth as Satrughna during Rāma’s pastimes. 2) son of Pradyumna and grandson of Lord Kṛṣṇa


Araṇya Kāṇḍa – the canto describing Lord Rāmacandra’s forest pastimes and Sītā’s kidnapping.


Arundhatī – wife of sage Vaśiṣṭha


asura – demoniac persons


Atikāya – son of Rāvaṇa and Dhanyamālinī


Avadha – another name of Ayodhyā


avatāra – descent of the Lord on Earth to exhibit pastimes (loosely defined as ‘incarnation’).


Ayodhyā – the abode of Lord Rāma mirrored on earth; the capital city of the kingdom of Kośala.


Ayodhyā Kāṇḍa – the canto that describes the marriage of Lord Rāma and Sītā, the declaration of coronation of Rāma, and the start of His fourteen year exile.


Bāla Kāṇḍa – the first canto of the Rāmāyaṇa describing the Lord’s childhood and teenage pastimes.


Balarāma – the primary expansion of Kṛṣṇa, who appeared on earth as the elder brother of Kṛṣṇa and later as Lord Nityānanda


Bāli – grandson of Prahlāda Mahārāja and devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa


bhagavān – term by Parāśara Muni used to describe God bearing six qualities in full form: immense beauty, strength, fame, wealth, knowledge, and renunciation


Bhagiratha – son of Dilipa who performed rigorous penance to Lord Brahmā and Siva in order to have the Gańgā enter the earth to redeem his forefathers


Bharata – the second oldest son of King Daśaratha, son of Kaikeyi; incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s expansion Pradyumna.


Bhārata – 1) the emperor of India and found of the Bhārata (Kuru) dynasty 2) the official name of India (Bhārata-varṣa)


brāhmaṇa – the highest class in the varṇāśrama dharma system, the enlightened teaching class of people


Candra – the deity in charge of the moon.


caraṇa – feet


Citraketu – Lord Lakṣmaṇa’s son


Citrakūṭa – the forest area where Rāma, Sītā, and Lakṣmaṇa stayed until Bharata’s arrival


Cyavana – a seer who sought protection from Lord Rāma when the demon Lavaṇa oppressed the ascetics and devotees in Mathurā.


daitya – demoniac persons; sons of Ditī


Daśagrīva – (“one with ten heads”) another name of Rāvaṇa.


Daśānana – another name of Rāvaṇa.


daśavatāra – the ten well-known forms of Lord Kṛṣṇa by Jayadeva Gosvāmī.


Daśaratha – father of Lords Rāma, Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa, and Satrughna


deva – demigod or divine personality


dharma – eternal religious principles and duties; righteousness


Dhanyamālinī – second wife of Rāvaṇa, mother of Atikāya


Dilīpa – father of Bhagiratha, ancestor of Lord Rāma


Durvāsa – the seer who was known for his curses and short temper


Duṣaṇa – brother of Khara


Drumakulya – the village where the Brahmāstra (by Lord Rāma’s desire) destroyed the demons to create the fountain hood of science and medicine


Dvāpara Yuga – the age when religion and irreligion was on equilibrium


Garuḍa – the man-eagle carrier of Lord Viṇu


Gañjavanta – a bear general


Gautama – the sage who cursed his wife to be a stone, despite her innocence during an act of deceit by Indra


Guha – king of the tribal class of people outside of the Kosala nation who was very dear to Lord Rāma


guru – (lit. “heavy”; also lit. “one who removes ignorance”) spiritual master


Hanumān – (Hanumat) eternal devotee of Lord Rāma


Hari – a name of Viṇu or Kṛṣṇa


Indra – the king of the demigods


Indrajīt – a name of Meghnada in lieu of defeating and kidnapping Indra


Ikvāku – king of the Raghu dynasty


Jāmbavanta – the king of bears, son of Brahmā who assisted Lord Rāma, minister of Sugrīva; father of Satyabhāmā, father-in-law of Lord Kṛṣṇa


Janaka – foster-father of Sītā, father-in-law of Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa, ascetic-king of the nation Videha


Janasthāna – the forest Sītā, Rāma, and Lakṣmaṇa stayed at before their final forest pastimes ended


Jaṭāyu – the great aged vulture who was killed by Rāvaṇa while trying to protect Sītā


Jaya – 1) victory 2) the gatekeeper of Vaikunṭha who was cursed with Vijaya to be born as demons for three births.


Kabandha – the torso-shaped demon with long arms, slayed by Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to free him from the curse


Kālanemi – 1) demon killed by Viṇu 2) demon sent by Rāvaṇa to distract Hanumān from finding the sañjīvanī plant


Kaikasi – wife of Viśravā, mother of Kumbhakarṇa, Rāvaṇa, and Vibhiṣaṇa


Kaikeyi – mother of Bharata; extracted the two boons from Daśaratha to make Bharata the king and exile Lord Rāma for fourteen years


Kaliyuga – the present age of quarrel and hypocrisy; started roughly five thousand years ago


Kauśalya – mother of Lord Rāma


Kesari – father of Hanumān, a general of the ape army


Khara – one of Rāvaṇa’s distant brothers


Kikindhā – the city consisting of bears and apes, ruled once by Vāli, then Sugrīva


Kikindhā Kāṇḍa – canto describing pastimes and the friendship of Lord Rāma and Sugrīva


Kṛṣṇa – the Supreme Personality of Godhead


Kumbhakarṇa – younger brother of Rāvaṇa and elder brother of Vibhiṣaṇa


Kuśa – son of Lord Rāma, elder brother of Lava


Kuśadhvaja – father of Maṇḍavī and Srutakīrtī; father-in-law of Bharata and Satrughna


Lakṣmaṇa – 1) Lord Rāma’s younger brother, third oldest son of Daśaratha, son of Sumitrā, incarnation of Sańkarṣana 2) son of Duryodhana in the Mahābhārata


Lakṣmī – the eternal consort of Lord Viṣu


Lańkā – the nation in an island south of India where Rāvaṇa ruled


Lańkā Kāṇḍa – see Yuddha Kāṇḍa


Lańkeśa – “lord of Lańkā” name for


Laṇkinī – the demoness who protected Laṇka by Lord Brahmā’s orders; defeated by Hanumān


Lava – son of Lord Rāma, younger brother of Kuśa


Lava Kuśa Kāṇḍa – the canto describing the epilogue of the Rāmāyaṇa


Lavaṇa – the demon tyrannical king of Mathurā killed by Lord Satrughna


līlā – divine pastimes of the Lord


Mainaka – the mountain in the sea between India and Sri Krsna that offered to help Hanumān


Māndhātā – arrogant and powerful king of the solar dynasty who was defeated by Lavaṇa


Mārīca – the uncle of Rāvaṇa who took form of golden deer to divert the attention of Lord Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa


Mahābhārata – the epic written by Vyāsadeva describing the history of India and the lunar dynasty as it entered the Age of Kali.


Maṇḍavī – wife of Bharata


Mantharā – maid of Kaikeyī who instigated a plot to send Rāma to the forest


Mālyavān – the maternal grandfather of Rāvaṇa


Maya – father of Mandodarī who was well known for his role as a sculptor, he surrendered to Kṛṣṇa and offered the Pāṇḍavas the palace of illusion


Māya – “that was it not”; the Lord’s illusory energy


Māyavada – impersonal philosophy


Meghnāda – eldest of Rāvaṇa and Mandodarī; “thunder-voiced”


Mandodarī – the principal queen of Rāvaṇa; mother of Meghnāda


Nandigrāma – the outskirt forestland of Ayodhyā were Lord Bharata lived in exile for fourteen years


Nala – an ape who assisted Rāma in building the bridge across the sea; twin of Nīla


Nārada Muni – the son of Brahmā who travels the worlds singing Lord Nārāyaṇa’s name


Nikumbilā – the family deity of the royal family of Lańkā


Nīla – an ape who assisted Rāma in building the bridge across the sea; twin of Nala


Niśāda – 1) the seventh note in the Indian musical scale 2) the tribal class of people


Nṛsiḿha – Lord Kṛṣṇa’s fiercest incarnation as a man-lion to protect Prahlāda Mahārāja


Nṛsiḿha pañcaka – the five prayers read by Lord Rāma during His exile when He passed over Ahovala, the abode of Lord Nṛsiḿhadeva


Pañcavaṭī – the forest


Paraśurāma – Lord Kṛṣṇa’s form as a brāhmaṇa to destroy the demoniac administrative class of men twenty-one times before retiring


Pradyumna – 1) an expansion of the Lord who took form as Bharata during Lord Rāma’s pastimes 2) the son of Rukmiṇī and Kṛṣṇa (NOTE: Pradyumna of Krsna lila and the expansion Pradyumna are not the same)


Prahasta – one of Rāvaṇa’s sons


PuṣkalaBharata’s son


Puṣpaka – the great swan aerial car that carried Sītā, Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa, the ape generals, Vibhiṣaṇa, and other devotees to Ayodhyā, originally owned by Kubera but seized by Rāvaṇa


Raghu – the great-grandfather of Lord Rāma; one of the founders of the royal (solar) dynasty Lord Rāma appeared in


Rāma – 1) a name for Lord Kṛṣṇa meaning “reservoir of pleasure” 2) Lord Rāmacandra who took form to destroy Rāvaṇa and establish the role of the perfect man and perfect king 3) Lord Balarāma


RamāLakṣmī, Lord


Rāmāyaṇa – the epic written by Vālmīkī describing all of Lord Rāma’s pastimes


Rāma navami – the appearance day celebration of Lord Rāma; (ninth day of the month of Caitra (March-April))


Rāvaṇa – son of Kaikasī and Viśravā; demoniac king of Lankā, kidnapped Sītā and was slain by Lord Rāma


RumāSugrīva’s wife, held captive by Vālī until his death


Rṣyamukha – the mountain where Sugrīva and his minister stayed until Lord Rāma’s visit


Sagara – a king of solar dynasty whose sons were burnt by Kapila Muni’s wrath


Sabharī – the tribal woman who served Lord Rāma fruits


SampātiJaṭāyu’s older brother whose wings were burnt


sañjīvanī – the plant that could bring the dead to life


Satrughna – son of Sumitrā and twin of Lakṣmaṇa


Siḿhikā – the lion-faced demon who was killed by Hanumān


Sītā – 1) Lord Rāma’s eternal consort 2) Advaitācārya’s wife (Thakurani)


Siva – deity in charge of checking the mode of ignorance; destroyer


Srutakīrtī – 1) Arjuna’s son with Draupadi 2) Satrughna’s wife


SrutasenaSatrughna’s son


Subahu – 1) demon that Rāma slayed 2) Satrughna’s son


Sugrīva – the king of the apes after Vālī’s death, friend and devotee of Lord Rāma


Sumantra – the royal minister of Ayodhyā


Sumitrā – mother of and Satrughna and Lakṣmaṇa


SunayanāJanaka’s wife


Sundara Kāṇḍa – canto written to glorify Hanumān


Surasā – the she-demon that tested Hanumān’s intelligence


SūrpanakhāRāvaṇa’s sister whose nose was disfigured by Lakṣmaṇa’s sword


Surya – the deity of the sun; royal deity of the Raghus


Sueṇa – the royal physician of Lankā who helped cure Lakṣmaṇa when He was injured during the war


ḍakāMārica’s mother, slayed by Rāma


TakṣaBharata’s son


TārāVālī’s wife


Urmilā – Lord Lakṣmaṇa’s wife


Uttara Kāṇḍa – the coronation of Lord Rāma




Vālī – the elder brother of Sugrīva, killed by Lord Rāma


Vālmīkī – author of the Rāmāyaṇa; sheltered Sītā during Her banishment and became the spiritual master of Lava and Kuśa


Varuṇa – demigod of the sea


Vaśiṣṭha – the spiritual preceptor and royal priest of the solar dynasty


Vāsudeva – 1) name of Lord Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva 2) expansion of Lord Kṛṣṇa that took form as Lord Rāma


Vedavatī – the devotee of Viṇu who was harassed by Rāvaṇa; took form as the shadow image of Sītā


Vibhiṣaṇa – youngest brother of Rāvaṇa, after being thrown out of his nation for his devotion, he sought Lord Rāma’s shelter and aided Him through the war, became future king of Lankā


Virāgha – a demon during the forest exile, killed by Lord Rāma


Viṇu – the expansion of Kṛṣṇa as maintainer of the mode of goodness


Viśvāmitra – a well known seer who had Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa accompany him to the forest to protect the seers from demoniac attacks


Vyāsa – (also known as Vedavyāsa or Kṛṣṇa Dvaipayana Vyāsa) compiler of the Vedic literatures and author of the Mahābhārata


Videha – The nation Janaka ruled


Yuddha Kāṇḍa – the war canto and Lord Rāma’s stay in Lankā