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Song Name: Atraiva Tattva Vijnanam

Official Name: Chapter 2; Bhagavac-chakti Varnanam

Author: Bhaktivinoda Thakura

Book Name: Krsna Samhita

Language: Sanskrit

 

 

LYRICS:

(1)

atraiva tattva-vijńānaḿ jńātavyaḿ satataḿ budhaiḥ

śakti-śaktimator bhedo nāsty eva paramātmani

 

(2)

tathāpi śrūyate'smābhiḥ parā śaktiḥ parātmanaḥ

acintya-bhāva-sampannā śaktimantaḿ prakāśayet

 

(3)

sā śaktiḥ sandhinī bhūtvā sattā-jātaḿ vitanyate

pīṭha-sattā-svarupā sā vaikuṇṭha-rūpiṇī satī

 

(4)

kṛṣṇādy-ākhyābhidhā sattā rūpa-sattā kalevaram

rādhādyā sańginī-sattā sarva-sattā tu sandhinī

 

(5)

sandhinī-śakti-sambhūtāḥ sambandhā vividhā matāḥ

sarvādhāra-svarūpeyaḿ sarvākārā sad-aḿśakā

 

(6)

saḿvid-bhūtā parā śaktir jńāna-vijńāna-rūpiṇī

sandhinī-nirmite sattve bhāva-saḿyojinī satī

 

(7)

bhāvābhāve ca sattāyāḿ na kińcid api lakṣyate

tasmāt tu sarva-bhāvānāḿ saḿvid eva prakāśinī

 

(8)

sandhinī-kṛta-sattveṣu sambandha-bhāva-yojikā

saḿvid-rūpā mahā-devī kāryākārya-vidhāyinī

 

(9)

viśeṣābhāvataḥ saḿvid brahma-jńānaḿ prakāśayet

viśeṣa-saḿyutā sā tu bhagavad-bhakti-dāyinī

 

(10)

hlādinī-nāma-samprāptā saiva śaktiḥ parākhyikā

mahā-bhāvādiṣu sthitvā paramānanda-dāyinī

 

(11)

sarvordhva-bhāva-sampannā kṛṣṇārdha-rūpa-dhāriṇī

rādhikā sattva-rūpeṇa kṛṣṇānandamayī kila

 

(12)

mahābhāva-svarūpeyaḿ rādhā kṛṣṇa-vinodinī

sakhya aṣṭa-vidhā bhāvā hlādinyā rasa-poṣikāḥ

 

(13)

tat-tad-bhāva-gatā jīvā nityānanda-parāyaṇāḥ

sarvadā jīva-sattāyāḿ bhāvānāḿ vimalā sthitiḥ

 

(14)

hlādinī sandhinī saḿvid ekā kṛṣṇe parātpare

yasya svāḿśa-vilāseṣu nityā sā tritayātmikā

 

(15)

etat sarvaḿ svataḥ kṛṣṇe nirguṇe'pi kilādbhutam

cic-chakti-rati-sambhūtaḿ cid-vibhūti-svarūpataḥ

 

(16)

jīva-śakti-samudbhūto vilāso'nyaḥ prakīrtitaḥ

jīvasya bhinna-tattvatvāt vibhinnāḿśo nigadyate

 

(17)

paramāṇu-samā jīvāḥ kṛṣṇārka-kara-vartinaḥ

tat teṣu kṛṣṇa-dharmāṇāḿ sad-bhāvo vartate svataḥ

 

(18)

samudrasya yathā binduḥ pṛthivyā reṇavo yathā

tathā bhagavato jīve guṇānāḿ vartamānatā

 

(19)

hlādinī sandhinī saḿvit kṛṣṇe pūrṇatamā matā

jīve tv aṇu-svarūpeṇa draṣṭavyā sūkṣma-buddhibhiḥ

 

(20)

svātantrye vartamāne'pi jīvānāḿ bhadra-kāńkṣiṇām

śaktayo'nugatāḥ śaśvat kṛṣṇecchāyāḥ svabhāvataḥ

 

(21)

ye tu bhoga-ratā mūḍhās te sva-śakti-parāyaṇāḥ

bhramanti karma-mārgeṣu prapańce durnibārite

 

(22)

tatraiva karma-mārgeṣu bhramatsu jantuṣu prabhuḥ

paramātma-svarūpeṇa vartate līlayā svayam

 

(23)

eṣā jīveśayor līlā māyayā vartate'dhunā

ekaḥ karma-phalaḿ bhuńkte cāparaḥ phala-dāyakaḥ

 

(24)

jīva-śakti-gatā sā tu sandhinī sattva-rūpiṇī

svargādi-lokam ārabhya pārakyaḿ sṛjati svayam

 

(25)

karma karma-phalaḿ duḥkhaḿ sukhaḿ vā tatra vartate

pāpa-puṇyādikaḿ sarvam āśā-pāśādikaḿ hi yat

 

(26)

jīva-śakti-gatā saḿvid īśa-jńānaḿ prakāśayet

jńānena yena jīvānām ātmany ātmā hi lakṣyate

 

(27)

vairāgyam api jīvānāḿ saḿvidā sampravartate

kadācil laya-vāńchā tu prabalā bhavati dhruvam

 

(28)

jīve yā hlādinī-śaktir īśa-bhakti-svarūpiṇī

māyā-niṣedhikā sā tu nirākāra-parāyaṇā

 

(29)

cic-chaktir atibhinnatvād īśa-bhaktiḥ kadācana

na prīti-rūpam āpnoti sadā śuṣkā svabhāvataḥ

 

(30)

kṛtajńatā-bhāva-yuktā prārthanā vartate harau

saḿsṛteḥ puṣṭi-vāńchā vā vairāgya-bhāvanā-yutā

 

(31)

kadācid bhāva-bāhulyād aśru vā vartate dṛśoḥ

tathāpi na bhaved bhāvaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇe cid-vilāsini

 

(32)

vibhinnāḿśa-gatā līlā kṛṣṇasya paramātmanaḥ

jīvānāḿ baddha-bhūtānāḿ sambandhe vidyate kila

 

(33)

cid-vilāsa-ratā ye tu cic-chakti-pālitāḥ sadā

na teṣām ātma-yogena brahma-jńānena vā phalam

 

(34)

māyā tu jaḍa-yonitvāc cid-dharma-parivartinī

āvaraṇātmikā śaktir īśasya paricārikā

 

(35)

cic-chakteḥ pratibimbatvān māyayā bhinnatā kutaḥ

praticchāyā bhaved bhinnā vastuno na kadācana

 

(36)

tasmān māyā-kṛte viśve yad yad bhāti viśeṣataḥ

tat tad eva pratichāyā cic-chakter jala-candravat

 

(37)

māyayā bimbitaḿ sarvaḿ prapańcaḥ śabdyate budhaiḥ

jīvasya bandhane śaktam īśasya līlayā sadā

 

(38)

vastunaḥ śuddha-bhāvatvaḿ chāyāyāḿ vartate kutaḥ

tasmān māyā-kṛte viśve heyatvaḿ paridṛśyate

 

(39)

sā māyā sandhinī bhūtvā deśa-buddhiḿ tanoti hi

ākṛtau vistṛtau vyāptā prapańce vartate jaḍā

 

(40)

jīvānāḿ martya-dehādau sarvāṇi karaṇāni ca

tiṣṭhanti parimeyāni bhautikāni bhavāya hi

 

(41)

saḿvid-rūpā mahā-māyā lińga-rūpa-vidhāyinī

ahańkārātmakaḿ cittaḿ baddha-jīve tanoty aho

 

(42)

sā śaktiś cetaso buddhir indriye bodha-rūpiṇī

manasy eva smṛtiḥ śaśvat viṣaya-jńāna-dāyinī

 

(43)

viṣaya-jńānam eva syān māyikaḿ nātma-dharmakam

prakṛter guṇa-saḿyuktaḿ prākṛtaḿ kathyate janaiḥ

 

(44)

sā māyā-hlādinī prītir viṣayeṣu bhavet kila

karmānanda-svarūpā sa bhukti-bhāva-pradāyinī

 

(45)

yajńeśa-bhajanaḿ śaśvat tat-prīti-kārakaḿ bhavet

trivarga-viṣayo dharmo lakṣitas tatra karmibhiḥ

 

TRANSLATION

1) We will now consider the science of Vaikuntha, which should be known by the learned. In the beginning it should be understood that there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Nothing is gained if we consider the Absolute Truth as devoid of energy, therefore it is the duty of swanlike persons to accept the existence of His energies. Energy is never a truth separate from the energetic Supreme Lord. Although proper examples to illustrate the Absolute Truth are unavailable in this material world, indirect examples are sometimes found. Just as fire and heat cannot exist separately, the Absolute Truth and His energies do not exist separately.

 

2) The Absolute Truth is manifested through the inconceivable superior energy of the energetic Absolute Truth, who is the source of the purushavataras and is realized through samadhi. If heat was separated from fire, then due to an absence of energy, fire would not exist. Similarly, if energy was separated from the Absolute Truth, then the Absolute Truth would not exist.

 

3) The superior energy of the Absolute Truth is realized in three different aspects—sandhini, samvit, and hladini. The first manifestation of the Absolute Truth is sat (sandhini), cit (samvit), and ananda (hladini). “In the beginning there was only the Supreme Brahman, then, after manifesting His energies, He became known as sat-cid-ananda,”—this kind of misconception arises due to consideration of material time and should not applied on the Absolute Truth. It is understood by swanlike people that the sat-cid-ananda form of the Lord is beginningless, endless, and eternal. The sandhini energy manifests the existence of the eternal abode, name, form, associates, relationships, features, and foundation of the Absolute Truth. The superior energy of the Lord has three potencies, namely cit, or spiritual, jiva, or marginal, and acit, or material. The spiritual potency, cit, is His internal potency. The marginal and material potencies are separated. These potencies are considered according to the proportion of the energy manifest. Vaikuntha is the abode of the spiritual potency of the sandhini aspect of the superior energy.

 

4) The names of Krsna manifest from the abhidha-satta, the body of Krsna manifests from the rupa-satta, and the lovers of Krsna like Radha manifest from a mixture of the rupa-satta and sangini-satta.

 

5) All kinds of relationships manifest from the sandhini aspect. The sandhini aspect of the Lord is the source of all spiritual manifestations and features.

 

6) The samvit aspect of the superior energy consists of knowledge and its practical application (jnana and vijnana). When samvit interacts with the manifestations of the sandhini aspect, all emotions appear.

 

7) Without the presence of emotions, existence would be unknown. Therefore all truths are illuminated by samvit. All the emotions of Vaikuntha are created by the samvit aspect of the spiritual potency.

 

8) All relationships in Vaikuntha have been established by Samvitdevi, who is the director of action and inaction. The different rasas, such as shanta and dasya, and the respective activities in those rasas have been established by samvit.

 

9) If one does not accept the quality of variegatedness, then Samvitdevi manifests for him the impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth. The living entity then takes shelter of impersonal knowledge of Brahman. Therefore impersonal knowledge of Brahman is only the impersonal consideration of Vaikuntha. For one who accepts the quality of variegatedness, Samvitdevi manifests the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The living entity then accepts the devotional service of the Lord.

 

10) When the spiritual potency of the superior energy interacts with the hladini aspect, it creates attachment up to the state of mahabhava, in which She (hladini) bestows the topmost ecstasy.

 

11) This hladini is Sri Radhika, who is the energy of the energetic, who possesses the topmost loving sentiments, and who is half of the Supreme Lord's form. She expands into the indescribable forms of Krsna's inconceivable happiness.

 

12) That Radha gives pleasure to Krsna. She is the embodiment of mahabhava. There are eight varieties of emotions that nourish the rasa of hladini. They are known as Radha's eight sakhis.

 

13) When the hladini energy of the living entities realizes a portion of the spiritual hladini by the association of devotees and the mercy of the Lord, then the living entities become eternally happy and attain the stage of pure eternal sentiments while remaining individual entities.

 

14) The sandhini, samvit, and hladini energies are eternally situated in Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; that is, existence, knowledge, and attachment are in perfect harmony in Him. Yet these three energies are also present in His personal expansions in His Vaikuntha pastimes.

 

15) Although many variegated qualities are eternally manifest in Sri Krsna, He wonderfully remains nirguna, devoid of material qualities, because His qualities are the interactions of His spiritual potency and are forms of His spiritual opulence.

 

16) After concluding the consideration on the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the spiritual potency of the superior energy, I will now explain the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the marginal potency of the superior energy. The living entities are created by the will of the Lord and by the inconceivable superior energy of the Lord. The living entities have been awarded minute independence, so they are classified as separated truths and their activities are said to be separated from the Lord's activities.

 

17) Krsna is like the spiritual sun, and the living entities are like the atomic particles of that incomparable sun's rays. Therefore all the qualities of Krsna are naturally present in the living entities.

 

18) Although it is inappropriate to compare the greatness of the Lord's qualities with the ocean or the earth, if we do consider His qualities in this way, then the qualities of the living entities appear like drops of the ocean or dust particles of the earth.

 

19) The three aspects—hladini, sandhini, and samvit—are fully manifest in Sri Krsna, but they are also minutely present in the living entities. This is understood by persons endowed with fine intelligence.

 

20) All living entities have independence that was awarded by the Lord, yet those who desire auspiciousness naturally remain under the subordination of Krsna.

 

21) Those who are unable to recognize what is auspicious and what is inauspicious and who engage in sense gratification do not accept subordination under the spiritual potency and thus live independently. They traverse the path of fruitive activities while wandering in the material world, which is difficult to leave after once entering.

 

22) For those living entities who traverse the path of fruitive activities, the Lord, as His pastime, accompanies them in the form of the Supersoul.

 

23) The pastimes of the Lord and the living entities appear mundane to the conditioned souls. The living entities enjoy the results of their fruitive activities, while the Supersoul awards those results.

 

24) When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhini, the upper heavenly planets are created.

 

25) Fruitive activities, the results of fruitive activities, distress, happiness, sin, piety, and all desires are also created by this interaction with sandhini. The functions of the subtle bodies are also created by this interaction. Svarloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, and Brahmaloka are all created by this interaction. Even the lower hellish planets are understood to be created by this interaction with sandhini.

 

26) When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it manifests knowledge of the Absolute Truth. By this knowledge a living entity realizes the Supersoul. This knowledge is distinct from and inferior to impersonal knowledge of Brahman, which is manifested by the interaction of the spiritual potency of the superior energy with samvit.

 

27) Renunciation, in the form of neglecting maya, manifests from this interaction of samvit with the marginal energy. Sometimes the living entities consider the happiness of realizing the self as insignificant and the happiness of realizing the Supersoul as relatively superior, and they therefore desire to merge with the Supersoul.

 

28) When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with hladini, it manifests devotional service to the Supreme Lord. This devotional service nullifies the material conception of the Lord and establishes Him as nirakara, or formless.

 

29) The rati, or attachment, of the spiritual potency is different from this type of devotional service of the Supreme Lord. Therefore this devotional service of the Lord is naturally dry, or without rasa, and is not based on love.

 

30) The prayers of those who perform this type of devotional service are mixed with gratefulness, therefore this cannot be called unmotivated devotional service. Rather, their prayers are filled with desires for material advancement or renunciation.

 

31) Although sometimes tears are shed out of emotion while executing this type of devotional service, such persons' emotions for Sri Krsna, who enjoys spiritual pastimes, do not arise.

 

32) Does this mean that there is no superior emotion in the hearts of the conditioned souls than this form of devotional service? Certainly there is. Just as Sri Krsna performs His pastimes in Vaikuntha with the eternally perfect living entities, He certainly performs pastimes in relationship with the conditioned souls.

 

33) Those who consider the happiness of the hladini aspect of the marginal potency as insignificant and consider the impersonal Brahman as incomplete understand that the pastimes of Krsna with the spiritual potency of the superior energy are more relishable, so they join those pastimes. They are qualified for receiving the highest happiness. They are servants of the Lord and are under the protection of the spiritual potency. They derive no fruits whatsoever from impersonal knowledge of Brahman or yoga. In this context, yoga refers to devotional service (as described above in verses 28-31), as practiced by the living entities. Regarding impersonal knowledge of Brahman, please refer to verse 9 of this chapter. Therefore when yogis and jnanis become fortunate, they engage in spiritual activities.

 

34) After completing discussions on the marginal potency, I will now discuss the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of maya-shakti, the external potency. All inert matter is manifested from the external potency of the superior energy. Therefore this maya potency converts spiritual characteristics into material characteristics. Maya, the external potency, covers the living entities, so she is the mother of illusion and a maidservant of the Supersoul.

 

35) After carefully studying the nature of maya, it is concluded to be the most inferior potency in the whole creation, because all of the living entities' inauspiciousness is created by maya. If maya did not exist, there would be no degradation of the living entities in the form of aversion to the Lord. Therefore many people doubt whether maya is the Lord's energy, because the Supreme Lord is all-auspicious and unaffected by sin. Those who understand the Supreme Lord as the supreme doer and controller do not accept any truth that is contrary to Him; they thus accept maya as the material potency of the Supreme Lord's spiritual energy. The external potency, which is a reflection or shadow of the spiritual potency, is not independent. By the will of the Lord, maya is the perverted reflection of, and therefore certainly subordinate to, the Lord's spiritual potency. In this context one should not accept the Mayavadi philosophers' meanings of bimba (reflection), pratibimba (reflected image), and praticchaya (shadow).

 

36) If we consider the existence of maya, we can conclude that this world is the shadow of Vaikuntha, which is created by the spiritual potency of the superior energy of the Lord and is full of variegatedness. The example of the moon in water is applicable to this shadow [the material world]. But this world is not false in the same way as the moon in the water is false. As maya is in fact a potency of the superior energy, whatever is created by her is also a fact.

 

37) As far as the work of the maidservant [Maya] is concerned, learned people say that this material world is her creation. This material existence is able to bind the living entities as part of the Lord's pastimes (please see verses 22-23 of this chapter).

 

38) Just as the original, pure condition of an object is not manifest in its shadow, we do not find the pleasantness of the spiritual world in the material world, which is created by maya, rather we find the perverted quality, distress.

 

39) When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhini, it spreads conceptions of nationalism. This mentality is found only in this world. The symptoms of this conception are spread through forms and their expansions. If one could ascertain Vaikuntha by one's thoughts, then the material forms and their expansions would certainly be useful. But the science of Vaikuntha is beyond the realm of material space, time, and argument and is realized through samadhi. Actually all the forms and expansions that are seen in Vaikuntha, the abode of transcendental pastimes, are all spiritual and auspicious. It should be known that the forms and expansions of the material world, the perverted reflection of the spiritual world, are forever devoid of bliss.

 

40) The activities and bodies of the conditioned living entities are material and limited and are meant for performing work and enjoying its results. They are created by the sandhini aspect of the external potency. If one tries to understand words like “tiny” and “atomic” in descriptions of the living entities and “greatness” in descriptions of the Supreme Lord in terms of material space, then one will not attain knowledge of the Absolute Truth.

 

41) When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it creates the subtle body of conditioned souls in the form of intelligence and false ego. The constitutional position of a pure living entity is beyond the gross and subtle bodies. The samvit aspect of the external potency is known in the scriptures as nescience. Due to this nescience, the gross and subtle bodies of the living entities are created. When pure living entities reside in Vaikuntha, the first knot of nescience, in the form of false ego, does not entangle them. Pure living entities cannot remain steady after giving up spiritual activities. Therefore as soon as the living entities become situated in their own happiness through the minute independence given by the Lord, they become shelterless and are compelled to take shelter of Maya. On account of this, pure living entities have no shelter other than Vaikuntha. The living entities of Vaikuntha are very insignificant, like fireflies in comparison to the powerful sunlike Lord. As soon as the living entity leaves Vaikuntha, he is simultaneously awarded a subtle body and thrown into the material world, created by Maya. All manifestations of the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the marginal potency are mixed with maya as soon as the living entity leaves the shelter of Vaikuntha. When one considers material existence as his own, this is called false ego. Absorption in this false ego is the function of the heart, cultivating material sense objects through the heart is the function of the mind, and realization through this cultivation is called material knowledge. The mind, being superior to the senses, manifests as the functions of the senses in their association. When the impression of contact between the senses and sense objects is established within, it is protected by the strength of remembrance. When one cultivates those protected memories by following the process of elaborating and condensing them, then whatever one conjectures is called argument. By this argument, knowledge of sense objects and related items is acquired.

 

42) The samvit aspect of the external energy creates the intelligence of the heart, the feelings of the senses, the remembrance of the mind, and the knowledge of sense objects.

 

43) Knowledge of sense objects is completely mundane. It has nothing to do with one's constitutional duties. It is called material knowledge because it is connected with the qualities of the material world.

 

44) The hladini aspect of the external energy manifests as attachment for material objects. That attachment spreads the conception of enjoyment in the form of happiness derived from fruitive activities. Attachment for the material world, the endeavor for material prosperity, and the desire for sense gratification all naturally arise from this attachment to sense objects. In order to maintain life peacefully, the four castes—brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra—are established according to people's natural characteristics, and the four ashramas—grihastha, vanaprastha, brahmacari, and sannyasi—are established according to people's position. According to necessity, constitutional and conditional occupational duties are ascribed. When the upper and lower planets, which are created by the sandhini aspect of the marginal potency (see verses 24-25), are connected with the results of these duties, then they become the object of the fruitive workers' hopes or fears. It is to be mentioned at this point that the samvit and hladini aspects of the marginal potency, being almost covered by the samvit and hladini aspects of the external potency, time to time manifest renunciation and knowledge of the self, which are ultimately overcome by maya due to the absence of spiritual activities.

 

45) The Supersoul is perceived at this point as Yajnesvara, the Lord of sacrifice. People of the material world try to please Him by their activities, and they worship Him by sacrifices. The name of this religion is trivarga, or dharma, artha, and kama. But there is no possibility of moksha, or liberation, by this path.

 

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UPDATED: February 1, 2017